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40年法国败北后,纳粹因种族岐视屠杀3千法军黑人战俘

Reviewed by Yannick Cormier (Université de Montréal)

批评人:Yannick Cormier(加拿大蒙特利尔大学)

Published on H-War (April, 2009)

颁发于H-War(2009年4月)

Commissioned by Janet G. Valentine (U.S. Army Command and General Staff College - Dept of Mil Hist)

由Janet G. Valentine委托(美国陆军司令部和总顾问部 - 亚博体育历史部)

The Unknown Massacres: Black French Prisoners in 1940

未知的大屠杀:1940年的黑人法国战俘

Historically speaking, the Holocaust, and the Nazi mass exterminations and atrocities committed in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union between 1939 and 1945 have always received more attention than other crimes that took place during the Second World War.

从历史上看,1939年至1945年间在东欧和苏联产生的大屠杀,德国纳粹大范围灭尽和暴行,比第二次天下大战时期产生的其他犯法不停遭到更多的存眷。

For instance, a long-forgotten fact was the various massacres of African French war prisoners during the German invasion of France in May and June 1940, when German soldiers randomly executed black Tirailleurs Sénégalais.

比方,一个恒久被忘记的究竟是1940年5月和6月德国入侵法国时期对非洲法国战俘的种种屠杀,其时德国兵士随意处决了玄色的塞内加加尔外籍兵团。

Raffael Scheck, professor of modern history at Colby College, recently wrote on this in Hitler’s African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940.

科尔比学院近代史传授拉斐尔·谢克近来在1940年希特勒的非洲受益者:德国陆军对黑人法国兵士大屠杀中。

This book presents an interesting account of these events, and provides a fair analysis of the causes and motivations of the perpetrators.

这本书先容了这些变乱的风趣形貌,并提供了对缘故原由的公平剖析。

In four detailed chapters, Scheck presents an overview of the massacres of black French Colonial Troops, the number of victims( 1,500 to3,000), as well as the military events that led to them.

在四个细致的章节中,拉斐尔·谢克概述了对黑人法国殖民部队的屠杀,受益者人数(1,500至3,000人),以及其他招致他们殒命的亚博体育行动

In order to illuminate the motivations that led the German invaders randomly to murder so many black war prisoners, chapters 2 and 3 give an overall analysis of a problematic that seemed unanswerable in this particular case: why did this happen?

为了分析招致德国入侵者随权谋杀云云多黑人战俘的动机,第2章和第3章对这个特别环境下好像无法答复的题目举行了片面剖析:为什么会产生这种环境?

Chapter 4 takes a look at the implications of such events, and it integrates those atrocities into the gradual barbarization process of the German Wehrmacht that took place between 1939 and 1945.

第4章先容了这些变乱的寄义,并将这些暴行归入了1939年至1945年间德国国防军渐渐的蛮横化历程


In 1940, the French army included more than 100,000 black French soldiers from France’s African colonies, mainly Senegal, Mauritania,and Niger.

1940年,法国部队包罗来自法国非洲各殖民地的10万多名黑人法国兵士,重要是塞内加尔,毛里塔尼亚和尼日尔。

More than 75,000 of them served in France before and during the German invasion; the rest of them served guard duty in the various colonies.

在德国入侵之前和时期,凌驾75,000人在法邦本土退役;别的的人在各个殖民地担当保镳职务。

As the Wehrmacht panzer divisions swept across France in May-June 1940, some of those black French soldiers (about 40,000 of them), mainly organized in black regiments or mixed units, were engaged in fierce combat against German soldiers.

1940年5月至6月,当德国国防军的装甲队伍横扫法国时,此中一些黑人法国兵士(约有4万人)重要是在黑人独立团或好坏混淆队伍中构造起来,他们与德国兵士举行了猛烈的战役。

About 10,000 black soldiers were killed, some wounded, and others taken prisoner during the French debacle.

在法国溃败时期,约莫1万名黑人兵士被杀,一些人受伤,另有一些人被俘。

Scheck states that between 1,500 to 3,000 black French prisoners of war were massacred throughout the campaign, either during or after combat.。

拉斐尔·谢克表现,在整个战役时期,无论是在战役时期(举手降服佩服都杀)照旧战役之后(战俘),都有1,500至3,000名黑人法国战俘被屠杀。

Generally speaking, Tirailleurs Sénégalais were treated differently from other war prisoners by the victorious army.

一样平常来讲,成功部队(德军)对“塞内加尔黑人军团”的报酬与其他战俘差别。

The existence of a well-implanted anti-black racism and stereotypes among the German soldiers frequently resulted in the black French troops being separated from other prisoners of war.

德国兵士中存在着根深地固的反黑种族主义和成规定型看法,每每招致黑人法国部队兵士与其他战俘离开。

Fear of coupes-coupes (a hand-to-hand weapon used by the Tirailleurs Sénégalais that German soldiers considered a treacherous weapon), latent desire for revenge because of German losses, or simple racism, resulted in random massacres of black French war prisoners by members of the Wehrmacht.

对付Coupes-coupes(一种德国兵士以为是塞内加尔黑人兵士特别的伤害武器的手持武器),由于德国人的被杀大概便是简朴的种族主义而复仇的潜伏愿望,招致对付Coupes-coupes(一种德国兵士以为是伤害武器的TirailleursSénégalais利用的手持武器),由于德国人的去世伤或简朴的种族主义而复仇的潜伏愿望,招致德国防军成员随意屠杀黑人法国战役俘虏。


The author’s investigation of what caused the slaughters is also interesting.

作者对屠宰变乱的观察也很故意思

Scheck gives a precise account of those situational factors and links them well to ideological ones, stating that racist Nazi indoctrination and stereotypes must be fully integrated into the chaotic context of fighting in order to explain the massacres.

拉斐尔·谢克准确地形貌了这些情境要素,并将它们与认识形状要素接洽起来,并指出纳粹种族主义的贯注和刻板印象完全融入战役的杂乱配景中,以便表明大屠杀。

He remarks that there were no clear governmental or military orders authorizing such criminal behavior toward specific groups of prisoners of war in 1940.

他认可,1940年德国并没有明白的当局或亚博体育下令受权对特定的战俘集团接纳这种犯法举动。

In fact, many of those atrocities were committed by heavily indoctrinated elite Wehrmacht,or Nazi military units like the SS Totenkopf, or the Gross Deutschland.

究竟上,此中很多暴行都是由精密贯注的德国精英国防军,或像SS Totenkopf(党卫或军),大概德意志总会如许的纳粹亚博体育单元犯下的。 Those troops were already (or would be, along with others, later on) held responsible for racist behavior and excesses, as well as mass murders during May-June 1940. 。

1940年5月至6月时期,这些队伍曾经(或将会和其别人一同)对种族主义举动和过激举动以及大范围行刺卖力。

Scheck avoids overall generalization on what happened to those prisoners by discussing the random character and inconsistency of the massacres. 。

拉斐尔·谢克制止片面归纳综合性的讨论这些德军屠杀黑人战俘是随意的与抵牾的

Readers quickly understand that not all black French war prisoners were executed, and that some German or French officers even managed to prevent such events from occurring

和大屠杀的纷歧致。读者很快就明确,并非全部黑人法国战俘都被处决,并且一些德国或法国官员乃至想法防备此类变乱产生。事.

In fact, the treatment of imprisoned black French soldiers actually improved after the May-June 1940 campaign, especially in prisoner of war camps.

究竟上,在1940年5月至6月的屠杀变乱之后,对被羁系的黑人法国兵士的报酬现实上失掉了改进,特殊是在战俘营中。

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